IGCP Projects approved in 2005
Proposers: Jingeng Sha (China), Nicol Morton (France), W. A.P. Wimbledon (UK), Paul E. Olsen (USA), Alberto G. Riccardi (Argentina). Grzegorz (Gregory) Pieсkowski, (Poland), Yongdong Wang (China)
Countries involved: Argentina, Australia, Burma, China, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Japan, Malaysia, Mongolia, Morocco, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Thailand, UK, USA, Viet Nam.
Duration: 2005-2006 (-2009)
The Jurassic is an important period in the earth's history and for the evolution of life. It covers about 55-60 Ma time-span and encompasses some of the most significant global events in geological history, including mass extinctions, climate and sea level changes, volcanic activities, atmospheric CO2 concentration, biodiversity change and the variation of marine and non-marine ecosystems. In particular, the Jurassic deposits in Europe, the Middle East and East Asia are the major formations for hydrocarbon resources (including coal, oil and gas), showing significant value for world's energy and mineral resources. Rich and diverse fossils have been recorded in both marine and non-marine sequences. Analysis of the biodiversity variation of such important fossil organisms is crucial for global correlation between marine and non-marine Jurassic deposits. In addition, volcanic rocks (especially tuffs) are also developed in the Jurassic of some areas. Significant work on marine/non-marine Jurassic has been carried out in England, USA, Argentina, China and India, especially the boundaries with the Triassic and Cretaceous have long been debated and not yet been resolved on a global scale. Furthermore, our knowledge is still limited regarding to the major geological events as well as their record and potential correlation that happened during the Jurassic interval. Therefore, an international project is necessary to unify the geologists and palaeontologists worldwide who are interested in the studies of the Jurassic system, with emphasis upon multidisciplinary integration. The project will use the integrated multidisciplinary methods, including palaeontological, lithostratigraphical, biostratigraphical, sequence stratigraphical, lithological including volcanic, sedimentary and sedimentological, geochemical, isotopic dating and geophysical, to solve the interrelated problems of correlation between marine and non-marine Jurassic, including the boundary intervals.
Project No. 508 Inception of volcano collapses by fault activity: examples from Argentina, Ecuador and Italy
Proposers: I.Alejandro Petrinovic (Argantina), T. Toulkeridis (Ecuador), A.Concha Dimas (Mexico) Claudia Corazzato (Italy)
Countries involved: Argentina, Ecuador, Italy, Mexico
Duration: 2005-2007 (three years)
This project is aimed at understanding the influence of basement faults and their activity on volcano structural evolution in different tectonic settings, and in particular to assess the role of this influence in triggering edifice lateral collapse. This is one of the most hazardous phenomena in volcanic environment, for the volume and the mobility of the material involved, the velocities reached and the capacity of triggering violent explosive blasts or, at island volcanoes, tsunamis. After the catastrophic collapse of Mt. S. Helens' flank in 1980, evidences of past lateral collapses have been recognized at many other volcanoes in the world, both active and extinct, and authors have proposed different possible causes of volcano deformation and failure. Among these, quite recent works have pointed out how tectonic faulting can influence volcano stability, even at extinct edifices. Moreover, although collapse phenomena are extensively documented, only recently have studies begun to quantify material properties and conditions preceding catastrophic failures. Three case sites have been chosen, Cotopaxi (Ecuador), Stromboli (Italy) and Quevar (Argentina), representative of volcanoes with evidences of past flank collapses and in close relation to faults in tectonic settings with different styles of faulting: reverse, normal and strike-slip. New contributions to the understanding of the relationship between fault activity and volcano collapse will be reached only through a strong interdisciplinary approach, by means of field, laboratory and theoretical methods. In particular, the project will foster close co-operation and enhance dialogue among field geologists experienced in volcanoes and basement structures, engineering geologists and modellists. The expected results will consist in a better understanding of the geological characteristics and processes of volcano-basement interaction, and particularly in the improvement of models describing the mechanics of large-scale volcano sector collapse controlled by the ativity of faults with different kinematics. These results will also contribute to hazard and risk assessment, and the definition of possible patterns of precursor geological signals of volcano failure will be useful for monitoring planning and management, especially in developing countries. Training of young scientist and students at different levels through their involvement in research activity will lead to an improvement of preparedness of those who will have to assess volcanic hazard in the future, and will encourage them to establish a network for future international co-operative projects within and even beyond the framework of IGCP.
Project No. 509 Palaeoproterozoic Supercontinents And Global Evolution: A Complete Tectonic Cycle Representing The Evolving Core, Mantle, Lithosphere, Hydrosphere, Atmosphere, And Biosphere
Proposers:S.M. Reddy (Australia), R. Mazumder (India), D.A.D. Evans (USA)
Countries involved: Australia, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Brazil, Cameroon, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, India, Japan, Korea, Namibia, Nigeria, Romania, Russia, South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania, UK, USA, Zimbabwe.
The Palaeoproterozoic Era (2500-1600 Ma) is a critical period of Earth history in which it is thought that "modern" plate tectonic processes overtook the "plume" driven tectonism of the Archaean, the geodynamo gained in strength, atmospheric oxygen increased, glaciations engulfed the tropics, large changes in carbon cycling occurred, the planet suffered its two largest recorded bolide impacts, and eukaryotic life evolved from prokaryotic ancestors. Several lines of geological evidence suggest the existence of two successive supercontinents, Kenorland and Nuna, bracketing this globally important Palaeoproterozoic time interval. The amalgamation and dispersal of these supercontinents provides a framework that links processes of the deep Earth with those of its fluid veneer. This IGCP project seeks to generate plausible, quantitative reconstructions of these supercontinents, establish a thorough and robust tectono-stratigraphic synthesis of the Palaeoproterozoic geological record, and correlate supercontinental amalgamation or dispersal events with momentous changes in the Earth's geophysical, hydrological, atmospheric, and biological evolution. The project will bring together scientists from at least twenty countries, from different geological disciplines with expertise in different Palaeoproterozoic regions, and from academia, government, and industry, to develop a global view of the Earth during this critical period of planetary transition.
Project No. 510 Global Correlation of A-type Granites and Related Rocks, their Mineralization, and Significance in Lithospheric Evolution
Proposers: Roberto Dall'Agnol (Brazil), Carol D. Frost (USA), O. Tapani Rдmц (Finland)
Countries involved: Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Cameroon, China, France, Finland, Japan, Norway, Russia, South Africa, Sweden, Taiwan, United Kingdom, United States.
The general aim of the project is to correlate the petrology, geochronology, geochemistry, and metallogeny of A-type granites found in various tectonic settings through the geologic time. Specific themes that will be scrutinized include (1) age distribution, petrotectonic associations, and genetic models of A-type granites and related rocks; (2) their significance in metallogeny; (3) their bearing on granite typology and evaluation of hitherto proposed classifications; (4) their overall role in the evolution of the Earth's lithosphere.
Proposers: Jacques Locat (Canada), Juergen Mienert and Roger Urgeles - (IOC link)
Countries involved: Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Germany, France, Georgia, Greece, China, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, UK, USA.
The Grand Bank earthquake of 1929 triggered a huge submarine mass movement which broke submarine cables over a distance of up to 1000 km from its source and generated a tsunami which devastated a small village in Newfoundland killing 27 people. A similar event happened in Papua New Guinea in 1998 with more than 2000 casualties. Submarine mass movements of various sizes and styles are shaping the sea floor and are of concern for many facets of human activities both onshore and offshore. These include the development of natural resources, energy and communication transport, coastal infrastructures and communities. This IGCP project will bring a worldwide perspective to submarine mass movements and their consequences. Such a perspective will be made possible by assembling excellent contributions from active researchers, groups or institutions thus providing a full coverage of the many scientific and engineering aspects of this type of marine and coastal geo-hazard. It will cover fundamental as well as site specific studies from many areas including the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, inner seas like the Mediterranean Sea, fjords and lakes using the most recent technologies from multibeam sonar imaging and 3D seismic, stability analysis, to debris flow and tsunami modeling.
Project No. 512 A new global synthesis on neoproterozoic ice ages, their correlation, ages, duration, areal extent, geological setting, related ore genesis, causes and effects
Proposers: Emmanuelle Arnaud (Canada), Marly Babinski (Brazil), Yves Goddйris (France), Galen Halverson (France), Martin Kennedy (USA), Conall Mac Niocaill (UK), Vibhuti Rai (India), Graham Shields (Australia), Zhu Maoyan (China)
Countries involved: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Iran, Japan, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Mongolia, Norway, Russia, Senegal, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, Uruguay, USA
Over the last decade there has been a growing recognition that the Earth possibly witnessed its most extreme climatic fluctuations during the mid-late Neoproterozoic between ~750 Ma and ~550 Ma. Indeed, there is compelling but controversial evidence that glaciers even reached the equator around 635 Ma inspiring the evocative visual metaphor of the Snowball Earth. Mounting evidence suggests that there might have been three or more distinct glacial episodes during this 200 million year interval of Earth history. However, there is currently no consensus regarding the number or relative severities of these ice ages, while their implications for biotic evolution awaits a firmer understanding of global stratigraphic correlation. By integrating proven expertise among emerging researchers worldwide from eight different subdisciplines within geoscience, we aim to work towards a consensus global stratigraphic calibration scheme for the mid-late Neoproterozoic and an authoritative global synthesis of Neoproterozoic climate change.
These questions will be addressed primarily by collaborative fieldwork in key Neoproterozoic successions in over ten different countries (current collaborative work among participants is taking place in Oman, Namibia, and Canada, while future IGCP work will take place in Senegal, Burkina Faso, Russia, Brazil, UK, China, Norway, Russia, Australia, and USA) over five years and related laboratory work in over ten different countries. The results of this project will advance the science of Earth System evolution and lead to a better understanding of past global climate change and its effects on ore deposition and faunal evolution.
Proposers: Chris Groves (USA), Yuan Daoxian (China), Bartolome Andreo-Navarro (Spain), Heather Viles (UK)
Countries involved: Austria, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Egypt, France, Germany, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, Syria, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Venezuela, Vietnam.
This project is proposed as the successor to Project 448: World Correlation of Karst Geology and Relevant Ecosystems, approved by the IGCP Scientific Board in 2000, and which will publish its final report in 2004. Project 448 is the most recent of three successful karst-related projects carried out under the auspices of IGCP, which also included Project 299: Geology, Climate, Hydrology and Karst Formation (1990-1994) and Project 379: Karst Processes and the Global Carbon Cycle (1995-1999).
An irony is that many of the world's significant karst areas occur in poorly developed economic regions, in part due to the physical challenges that these landscapes often present with regard to water supply, agriculture, and urban development. Thus, resources are often limited to address these significant problems. The main purpose of the proposed project is to encourage international cooperation to increase understanding of karst water resources with regard to both ecological and human health concerns, and to promote the sharing of ideas, experiences and resources in developing solutions to karst water resource challenges. We propose a transdisciplinary approach to address the four major areas of emphasis for the project:
Project No. 514 Tectonically and climatically induced evolution of fluvial palaeo-systems and applications to mineral exploration
Proposers: Prof. Natalia Patyk-Kara (Russia), Dr. Alejandra Duk-Rodkin (Canada), Dr. Baohong Hou (Australia), Prof. Li Ziyang (China), and Dr. Vladimir Dolgopolov (Kazakhstan)
Countries involved: Australia, Byelorussia, Canada, China, India, Israel, Mongolia, Russia, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, USA.
The main aim of this project is to analyse palaeo-fluvial channels in environments where mineral deposits are found. These include proximal gravel accumulations (placer gold, PGE, tin, rare metals, etc.), distal gravel and sand accumulations (diamonds, heavy minerals, fine gold, etc.), and hydrogenic (leached) deposits related to (occurring on) complex geochemical barriers (uranium and attendant molybdenium, rhenium, selenium, yttrium, rare elements, etc). These sedimentary ore accumulations are known to occur in palaeovalleys, palaeochannels and palaeoshorelines of various ages from Recent to Pre-Cambrian (Tertiary, Cretaceous, Jurassic, Carboniferous, Devonian, Vendian, Riphean, etc.). The critically important objective is an understanding of the dynamics of palaeochannel morphology, palaeochannel evolution and sedimentary ore accumulations related to palaeochannels. Valley and shoreline systems which have evolved during the Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary-Quaternary serve as models for this analysis. In particular, late Cenozoic ore-enclosing drainages are model systems for better understanding the Pre-Cenozoic palaeovalley ore formation. The methodology of the project is as follows:
Project No. 515 Vulnerability and resilience assessment of coastal zone in Mediterranean and Black Sea areas related to the forecast sea level rise for management purposes.
Proposers: U. Simeoni (Italy), Maria Snoussi (Morocco), Zdravko Belberov (Bulgaria), Franзois Sabatier (France)
Countries involved: Albania, Algeria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, France, Georgia, Greece, Israel, Italy, Lebanon, Libya, Malta, Morocco, Romania, Spain, Syrian, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, Russia.
One of the more certain consequences of global climate changes is an accelerated global sea level rise that, according to recent studies, is assumed to reach 49 cm in 2100. Moreover the relative sea level rise (RSLR) is expected to be higher in coastal or deltaic zones affected by subsidence. This RSLR will increase the stress on many coastal zones, where 21% of the world's population already live within 30 km from the sea, in particularly costal zones where human activities have diminished natural and socio-economic adaptative capacities. The coastal zones could be affected in terms of increased erosion, inundation and displacement of coastal wetlands and other coastal lowlands, increased risk of flooding or storm damage and salinisation of surface and ground waters. These primary impacts will be on livelihoods, human health, infrastructure and economic activity. However, the quantitative assessment of climate change impacts on coastal zone is generally considered a complex task and involves a number of analytical challenges, including scientific and economic uncertainties and data limitations. The aim of this project is to bring the relevant research groups together in order to define the more common suitable methods to assess the coastal vulnerability towards future sea level rise and propose a common guideline for coastal management.
Project No. 516 Geological Anatomy of East and South Asia: Paleogeography and Paleoenvironment in Eastern Tethys
Proposers: Ken-ichiro Hisada (Japan), Punya Charusiri (Thailand), Byung-Joo Lee (Rep.of Korea), Xiaochi Jin (China)
Countries involved: Australia, Bangladesh, Brunei, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand.
The project is a successor to IGCP 224 (Pre-Jurassic Evolution of Eastern Asia, 1985-1990), 321 (Gondwana Dispersion and Asian Accretion, 1991-1996), and 411 (Geodynamics of Gondwanaland -derived Terranes in E & S Asia, 1998-2003). The project aims at understanding the assembly processes of Gondwana-derived terranes and the final emplacement of these terranes into the Asian continent during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic times. The fundamental goal of this project is to gain palaeogeography and palaeoenvironment in the eastern Tethys. To achieve this purpose, the geological anatomy of East and South Asia as well as Southeast Asia will be indispensable. In previous projects, the framework of geodynamic processes has been established, but the indentification and interrelation of terranes are still controversial and the fundamental knowledge for some terranes is scarce. Moreover internal structure of some orogenic belts in the relevant area is still poorly known. Consequently, crustal evolution, rifting and collision processes and formation of natural resources in the East and South Asia will be analyzed in details within the framework of Gondwana-derived terranes in the vast region embracing Pakistan, Sri Lanka, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Lao PDR, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Brunei, Papua New Guinea, Philippine, China, Korea, Taiwan, Japan and the Russia Far East. The project, therefore, involves an interdisciplinary approach including igneous and metamorphic petrology, geochemistry, sedimentology, tectonics, palaeobiogeography, palaeomagnetism, geophysics, and petroleum/coal geology.
Project No. 518 Fluvial sequences as evidence for landscape and climatic evolution in the Late Cenozoic
Proposer: David Bridgland (UK)
The project envisages to compile a database of long fluvial sedimentary sequences (and their palaeontological and archaeological contents), enabling comparison and correlation between all parts of the globe and providing evidence of environmental change, landscape evolution and crustal movements.
The project will have potential benefits in connection with the prospecting for and exploitation of (as well as conservation of) resources from fluvial sequences, such as aggregates and placer mineral deposits. It will provide improved understanding of the response of rivers to environmental and climatic change. This will be of benefit to those who have to live with and manage rivers in the widest sense, with applications for flood management schemes, irrigation and diversion schemes, navigation projects and other areas of human management and exploitation of rivers. There is also value in this type of research for understanding future global environmental change resulting from human impacts.
Project No. 519 Hydrogeology and hydrochemistry in coastal aquifers on the Atlantic coast of South America. Its knowledge for water management in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and in the touristic and historic district of Santa Marta, Colombia.
Proposer: Emilia Bocanegra (Argentina)
Countries involved: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia
Duration: 2005 (-2009)
The project aims at developing joint methodologies on marine intrusion process analysis in coastal aquifers on the Atlantic coast of South America, by assembling existing information and the participating research teams' potential. Activities and capacities to develop numeric models of coastal aquifer functioning which help as management tools will be undertaken.
Project No. 521 Black Sea Mediterranean Corridor during the last 30 ky: Sea level change and human adaptation
Proposers: Valentina Yanko-Hombach (Canada), Yucel Yilmaz (Turkey), Pavel Dolukhanov (UK)
Countries involved: Algeria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Egypt, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Israel, Italy, Macedonia, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, Ukraine, USA
The Black Sea-Mediterranean Corridor is an integrated oceanographic system defined here as the large geographical area covering the Manych-Kerch Gateway (Manych Valley, the Sea of Azov and the Kerch Strait) that lies to the east of the Black Sea, the Black Sea, the Marmara Gateway (the Bosphorus Strait, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles), the Aegean Sea, the Eastern Mediterranean and their coasts. During the Late Pleistocene the "Corridor" was connected to the Caspian Sea via Manych Gateway. Today, the "Corridor" is of strategic importance not only for all coastal countries but also for at least 17 other countries sharing a drainage basin that is one-third the size of the European continent. The "Corridor" acts as a palaeoenvironmental amplifier and as a sensitive recorder for climatic events where sea level variations and coastline migration are especially pronounced due to its geographical location and semi-isolation from the open ocean. It also provides a linkage between the marine and continental realms. Over the past 30 ky, the "Corridor" underwent a complicated history, which remains hotly debated. Lately, this region has spurred a tremendous international interest as a possible place where the biblical story of the Great Flood originated, encouraging a new round of controversial research on the hydrological regime in connecting straits, transition from a lacustrine to a marine environment, an influence of the Black Sea outflow on deposition of the Eastern Mediterranean sapropels as well as past/present/future adaptation of humans to environmental change.
The main goal of the project is to cover this gap by bringing the relevant but diverse research groups together to provide cross-disciplinary and cross-regional correlation of geological, geochemical, geophysical, palaeontological, archaeological and historical records for the entire "Corridor" in order to evaluate an influence of sea level change and coastline migration on human adaptation during last 30 ky. The research is focused on evolution of the coastal zone where a rich sedimentary, landform and archaeological archive provides a superb opportunity for studying spatial and temporal interactions between human adaptation and environmental change. This work will result in fundamental new knowledge regarding the driving mechanisms that influence human adaptation in the region that became known as the "cradle of civilization", a subject of great interest to the Quaternary, earth, marine, environmental and social sciences. Its strong applied component will be directly relevant to coastal managers in regard to the environmental risk assessment and sustainable development of the "Corridor" under Global Climate Change anticipated to take full effect in this century.
Project No. 522 Dawn of the Danian (65-61 Ma): Post K-T Boundary Austral Biotic Survivorship and Recovery in a 'Brave New World'
Proposers: Jeffrey D. Stilwell (Australia), Claudia Del Rнo (Argentina)
Countries involved: Australia, Argentina, India, New Zealand, South Africa, Uruguay, USA.
The Danian interval (Early Palaeocene Epoch, 65-61 Ma) of the Tertiary Period immediately followed the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary mass extinction event (65 Ma), one of the greatest crises throughout the entire Phanerozoic that saw the global extermination of scores of terrestrial and marine animals and plants. The organisms living at the beginning of the Tertiary heralded the onset of the modern fauna. Moreover, pioneers in this 'brave new world' were made up of survivors, opportunistic and migrant taxa, and newly evolved groups that infilled the ecological vacuum left by the mass extinction. Thus, the Danian biota was characterized by complex evolutionary histories that exhibit dramatic signatures of composition and biodiversity levels relating to extinction and post-extinction recovery processes. Of particular significance, it has come to light only recently with preliminary intense research that the composition and biodiversity patterns of Southern Hemisphere Danian organisms are proving distinct from the North, indicating that although the mechanisms driving the observed patterns may be comparable, they have, in part, a unique suite of historical attributes. Outcomes from this research on the Danian will provide important new information with links to the International Subcommissions on Cretaceous and Paleogene Stratigraphy and spin-offs related to improvement of biostratigraphic control, which is in turn useful for geological exploration and hence, industry needs.
Research on biodiversity and evolutionary processes is of utmost importance in this time of looming habitat loss and species extinctions worldwide, now accelerating at an ominous rate. Estimates based on recent documentation of shifts in the distributions and abundance of species fuelled by climate change predict that more than a million species will be extinct by 2050. In terms of magnitude of extinction, this impending tragedy facing humankind today (labelled as the "Sixth Extinction") rivals the K-T boundary mass extinction. Studying patterns of biodiversity through time via the examination of intervals of global crises to those of quiescence provides humankind with the ammunition to deal with and predict future trends of global biosphere change. The Danian interval in the Southern Hemisphere is a perfect case study to examine the biotic response to major environmental change.
Project No. 523 Global Ground Water Network for Best Practices in Ground Water Management in Developing Countries. (A collaborative Project between UNESCO-IGCP and expert members in two Associations viz. IAH and AGID, affiliated to IUGS)
Proposers: Shrikant Daji Limaye (India), Dr A J Reedman (UK)
Countries involved: Argentina,Bangladesh, India, Mexico, UK, Pakistan
Duration: 2005 (-2009)
Ground water management includes exploration, assessment, sustainable utilization and protection of quality and quantity of ground water. In many developing countries or low income countries, ground water is getting over-exploited, polluted and scarce. However, in small watersheds in rural areas, there are a few examples of better management, through devoted work of some NGOs with participation of local people. In Urban areas, there are examples of roof water harvesting and recharging of aquifer. It is proposed under this project, to disseminate the success stories and experiences of ground water management through GROWNET website and Newsletter. It is also proposed to arrange regional meetings of the experts involved to discuss the methodologies, their success and shortcomings. The GROWNET would be an effective, transparent, authentic and gender sensitive network for Dissemination of Information and Capacity Building for following the Best Practices in Ground Water Management in South and South-East Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and in Latin America.
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